Thursday, 23 July 2015

Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY)

Why in news?
Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana will gradually be expanded said Union Minister of State for Tribal Affairs


About VKY:

  • VKY a strategic process. It aims at creating enabling environment for need based and outcome oriented holistic development of the tribal people.
  • This process envisages to ensure that all the intended benefits of goods and services under various programmes/schemes of Central as well as State Governments actually reach the target groups by convergence of resources through appropriate institutional mechanism.
  • During the year 2014-15, an amount of Rs 10.00 crore was earmarked to each of the ten States having Schedule V Areas for undertaking initiatives for development of one Block in each State. 

Scope

  • It covers all tribal people and all areas with tribal population across the country.]
  • First phase - focus on 10 states having schedule 5 areas --> in blocks with atleast 33% tribal population
    • AP, MP, HP, Telangana, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat. 
  • Plans to expand it further.

Objectives

  • Improving the quality of life in tribal areas
  • Improving the quality of education
  • Qualitative and sustainable employment for tribal families
  • Bridging infrastructure gaps with focus on quality
  • Protection of tribal culture and heritage

Strategies
  • Strengthening of institutions meant for delivery of goods and services with adequate administrative, technical and financial powers such as 
    • Tribal Welfare Departments as nodal Department, 
    • Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), 
    • Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDPs) and 
    • creation of new ones where they do not exist etc.
  • Convergence of scattered resources and activities being undertaken under various components.
  • Preparation of perspective plan with outcome oriented and monitorable targets after baseline assessment involving Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) such as Gram Sabha etc.
  • Gender responsiveness.
  • A special purpose vehicle like Development Support Agency of Gujarat (D-SAG) operative in Gujarat State wherever needed.
  • To ensure that Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) components of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) and State Plan (SP) are actually spent for tribal people and areas inhabited by tribal people.
  • A Project implementation Cell with the Ministry of Tribal Affairs at Central Government level.
  • Implementation of interventions primarily through ITDAs/ITDPs, with Public Private Partnership (PPP) support wherever needed and feasible.
  • Services of Academic Institutions, Research Organizations, Tribal Research Institutes and professional agencies for monitoring of outcomes.
  • In NE States where panchayats do not exist, institutions of decentralized governance at village / town level to be created.
Activities:

  • Qualitative and sustainable employment.
  • Emphasis on quality education and higher education.
  • Accelerated economic development of tribal areas.
  • Health for all.
  • Housing for all.
  • Safe drinking water for all at doorsteps.
  • Irrigation facilities suited to the terrain.
  • All weather roads with connectivity to the nearby town/cities
  • Universal availability of electricity.
  • Urban development.
  • Promotion of sports in the tribal areas
  • Promotion and preservation of tribal culture and heritage
  • Robust institutional mechanism to roll the vehicle of development with sustainability.

Action Plan
These are state and tribe specific with area specific issues and priorities.


Outcomes:
They would be consistent with the broad objectives and state specific interventions based on the socio-economic indicators. 
For example, a State with high literacy would focus on quality education and higher education to begin with,and ones with low literacy would focus on 100% enrolment etc.


Action Taken by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs

  • Held few rounds of consultations with the State and Central Government Ministries/Department on convergence of TSP resources for the desired outcomes.
  • A national level brain- storming session was held on 13th December 2014 with experts, institutions, retired and serving civil servants to prepare national priorities and way forward.
  • All the schemes of the Ministry have been brought in conformity with the VKY approach for tribal development.
  • A Project Appraisal Committee (PAC), headed by Secretary, MoTA constituted which appraised and approved the projects of the State with due convergence of TSP programmes.
  • Tribe wise literacy and other socio-economic indicators used as a tool for approval of projects.
  • Livelihoods like dairy development, horticulture have been provided focus, and skills for hospitality, teaching, para-medics, eco-tourism, computer training etc. have been advocated to address issue of employability and the overcome shortage of these personnel in tribal areas.
  • Language and cultural context are given due importance in design and implementation of programmes in education, health and socio-economic development. 
    • For examples, Primers in tribal language, holidays in conformity with tribal festival, inclusion of tribal art and craft in scholarship.
Challenges and Way Ahead
  • Finance, planning and line departments of the states have to agree for a protocol, so that TSP spending can be monitored. 
  • The Chief Minister of Gujarat has been monitoring TSP implementation. 
    • However, there is no certainty of its success in other states with CM heading the planning and monitoring committee. 
    • Rather it could delay the process if adequate commitment is not there. 
  • In the absence of the Planning Commission, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) could be the nodal agency for TSP allocation at the Central Government. 
    • Alternatively Ministry of Finance could be assigned this job in consultation with MoTA. 
  • Work of TSP appraisal and approval would require strengthening the manpower in the Ministry. 
  • The budget of MoTA of about Rs. 4000 crores is less than that of TSP component of many states. 
    • For example, the TDD of Gujrat administers about Rs 9000 crores a year. 
[Source; VKY Website]

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